Jean-Philippe Avouac photoJean-Philippe Avouac Professor of Geology:Director of the Tectonics Observatory:CaltechCaltech logo

Ge 277- Sensitivity of seismicity to stress perturbations, implications for  earthquake  nucleation.

Winter Quarter 2007

Instructor: Jean-Philippe Avouac

 Tuesdays, 3:00-4:30pm, Location: Gutenberg Library

Outline

We will review papers investigating the relationship between seismicity and stress changes due to various mechanisms (such as earth tides, postseismic relaxation, dike injection) and papers, mainly based on rock mechanics experiments, which will help relate these observations to earthquake nucleation models. We shall see that fluids probably play a key role in enhancing the sensitivity of faulting to small stress changes. Toward the end of the seminar series we will try to figure out ways of improving our understanding earthquake processes from geological investigations.

Organization.

We will be meeting once a week in the Gutenberg Library on Tuesdays from 3:00 pm to 4:30 pm.

The instructor will give some of the presentations (in particular the introductory lecture) but most topics will be given by students. Each student will be in charge of presenting one or two topics to the group over the 10 weeks course of the seminar. Each student will be asked to interact with the instructors to prepare the presentation, at least one week ahead of time. This is important to make it sure that the message is well conveyed to the group and that the basic concepts necessary to make the topic accessible to the audience are reviewed during the presentation. Each week we will pick one key paper that each student is expected to have read ahead of time. The information will be given the week before the presentation.

The ppt presentations, readings and additional papers will be made available on JPA ftp site (/home/ftp/pub/avouac/Ge277-2007).

Tuesday, January 9

Introduction to the seminar : Jean-Philippe Avouac

Tuesday, January 16

Speaker 1: Ozgun, Aftershocks and static Coulomb stress changes

Speaker 2: JPA, Experimental friction laws

Readings: King et al, 1994; Scholz, 1998.

Tuesday, January 23

Speaker 1: JPA, Rate-and-state  friction

Speaker 2: Yoshi, Afterslip and Aftershocks

Readings: Harris, (1998), Dieterich (1994),

Tuesday, January 30

Speaker 1: JPA, Rate-and-state  friction and aftershocks

Speaker 2: Celia, Using seismicity rate as a stress meter

Readings: Gomberg, (2001), Dieterich et al (2000)

Additional optional reading: Gross and Kisslinger (1997); Perfettini et al, (2003a, 2003b)

Tuesday, February 6

No class

Tuesday, February 13

Speaker 1 : Wang Yu

Speaker 2 : Willy

Reading: Toda et al (2002); Lockner and Beeler (1999)

Additional optional reading: Beeler and Lockner (2003)

Tuesday, February 20

Speaker 1 : Willy

Speaker 2 : Carl

Reading: Tanaka et al, JGR (2002)

Additional optional reading: Tanaka et  al, GRL (2002); Tanaka et al, EPSL (2004)

Reading :

Tuesday, February 27

Speaker 1 : Steve

Reading : Hill et al, Science (1993); Gao et al, Nature (2000)

Tuesday, March 6

Speaker 1 : Ting

Speaker 2 : Yi

Reading: Gross and Kisslinger, JGR (1997); Heimpel, M., and P. Malin,(EPSL) 1998.

Tuesday, March 13

Speaker 1: Yoshi

Debriefing of class

Reading : Johnson, P. A., and X. P. Jiz, Nature, 2005
 

Sensitivity of seismicity to stress changes, relation to fault rheology

Dieterich, J. H. (1987), Nucleation and triggering of earthquake slip: effect of periodic stresses, Tectonophysics, 144, 127-139.

Lockner, D. A., and N. M. Beeler (1999), Premonitory slip and tidal triggering of earthquakes, Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth, 104, 20133-20151.

Perfettini, H., and J. P. Avouac (2004), Postseismic relaxation driven by brittle creep: A possible mechanism to reconcile geodetic measurements and the decay rate of aftershocks, application to the Chi-Chi earthquake, Taiwan, Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth, 109.

Perfettini, H., and J. Schmittbuhl (2001), Periodic loading on a creeping fault: Implications for tides, Geophysical Research Letters, 28, 435-438.

Beeler, N. M., and D. A. Lockner (2003), Why earthquakes correlate weakly with the solid Earth tides: Effects of periodic stress on the rate and probability of earthquake occurrence, Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth, 108

Seasonal variations of seismicity : Observations

Gao, S. S., et al. (2000), Annual modulation of triggered seismicity following the 1992 Landers earthquake in California, Nature, 406, 500-504.

Heki, K. (2001), Seasonal Modulation of Interseismic Strain Buildup in Northeastern Japan Driven by Snow Loads, Science, 293.

Heki, K. (2003), Snow load and seasonal variation of earthquake occurrence in Japan, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 207, 159-164.

McClellan, P. H., Earthquake Seasonality before the 1906 San-Francisco Earthquake, Nature, 307, 153-156, 1984.

Saar, M. O., and M. Manga (2003), Seismicity induced by seasonal groundwater recharge at Mt. Hood, Oregon, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 214, 605-618.

Sensitivity of Seismicity to solid earth tides: Observations

Cochran, E. S., et al. (2004), Earth tides can trigger shallow thrust fault earthquakes, Science, 306, 1164-1166.

Heaton, T. H., Tidal Triggering of Earthquakes, Geophysical Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society, 43, 307-326, 1975.

Tanaka, S., et al. (2002a), Evidence for tidal triggering of earthquakes as revealed from statistical analysis of global data., J. of Geophys Res., 107.

Tanaka, S., et al. (2002b), Spatio-temporal variation of the tidal triggering effect on earthquake occurrence associated with the 1982 South Tonga earthquake of Mw 7.5, Geophysical Research Letters, 29.

Tanaka, S., et al. (2004), Tidal triggering of earthquakes in Japan related to the regional tectonic stress, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 56, 511-515.

Vidale, J. E., et al. (1998), Absence of earthquake correlation with Earth tides: An indication of high preseismic fault stress rate, Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth, 103, 24567-24572.

Relation between static stress changes and seismicity rate changes: Observations

King, G. C. P., et al. (1994), Static Stress Changes And The Triggering Of Earthquakes, Bulletin Of The Seismological Society Of America, 84, 935-953.

Gross, S., and C. Kisslinger (1997), Estimating tectonic stress rate and state with Landers aftershocks, Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth, 102, 7603-7612.

Dieterich, J., et al. (2000), The use of earthquake rate changes as a stress meter at Kilauea volcano, Nature, 408, 457-460.

Toda, S., et al. (2002), Evidence from the AD 2000 Izu islands earthquake swarm that stressing rate governs seismicity, Nature, 419, 58-61.

Perfettini, H., and J. P. Avouac (in press), Modeling afterslip and aftershocks following the 1992, Landers Earthquake, Journal Of Geophysical Research.

Perfettini, H., et al. (2003b), Shear and normal load perturbations on a two-dimensional continuous fault: 2. Dynamic triggering, Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth, 108, art. no.-2409.

Hsu, Y. J., et al. (2006), Frictional afterslip following the 2005 Nias-Simeulue earthquake, Sumatra, Science, 312, 1921-1926.

Dynamic triggering of earthquakes, Observations and model.

Hill, D. P., et al. (1993), Seismicity Remotely Triggered by the Magnitude 7.3 Landers, California, Earthquake, Science, 260, 1617-1623.

Kilb, D. (2003), A strong correlation between induced peak dynamic Coulomb stress change from the 1992 M7.3 Landers, California, earthquake and the hypocenter of the 1999 M7.1 Hector Mine, California, earthquake, Journal Of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth, 108.

Gomberg, J., et al. (2000), On rate-state and Coulomb failure models, Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth, 105, 7857-7871.

Johnson, P. A., and X. P. Jiz, Nonlinear dynamics, granular media and dynamic earthquake triggering, Nature, 437, 871-874, 2005.

Some more reading on friction laws, stress transfer and earthquake nucleation.

Dieterich, J. H., and B. Kilgore (1994), Direct observation of frictional contacts: new insights for state-dependent properties, PaGeoph, 143, 283-302.

Gomberg, J. (2001), The failure of earthquake failure models, Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth, 106, 16253-16263.

Harris, R. A., Introduction to special section: Stress triggers, stress shadows, and implications for seismic hazard, Journal Of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth, 103, 24347-24358, 1998.

Heimpel, M., and P. Malin (1998), Aseismic slip in earthquake nucleation and self-similarity: evidence from Parkfield, California, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 157, 249-254.

Kato, N., and T. Hirasawa (1999), A model for possible crustal deformation prior to a coming large interplate earthquake in the Tokai District, Central Japan,, Bull. Soc. Am., 86, 1401-1417.

Marone, C. (1998), Laboratory-derived friction laws and their application to seismic faulting, Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, 26, 643-696.

Perfettini, H., et al. (2003a), Shear and normal load perturbations on a two-dimensional continuous fault: 1. Static triggering, Journal Of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth, 108.

Perfettini, H., et al. (2003b), Shear and normal load perturbations on a two-dimensional continuous fault: 2. Dynamic triggering, Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth, 108, art. no.-2409.

Scholz, C. H. (1998), Earthquakes and friction laws., Nature, 391, 37-42

All references above and some more for background

Beeler, N. M., and D. A. Lockner, Why earthquakes correlate weakly with the solid Earth tides: Effects of periodic stress on the rate and probability of earthquake occurrence, Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth, 108, 2003.

Cocco, M., and A. Bizzarri, On the slip-weakening behavior of rate- and state dependent constitutive laws, Geophysical Research Letters, 29, 2002.

Cochran, E. S., J. E. Vidale, and S. Tanaka, Earth tides can trigger shallow thrust fault earthquakes, Science, 306, 1164-1166, 2004.

Dieterich, J., V. Cayol, and P. Okubo, The use of earthquake rate changes as a stress meter at Kilauea volcano, Nature, 408, 457-460, 2000.

Dieterich, J. H., Nucleation and triggering of earthquake slip: effect of periodic stresses, Tectonophysics, 144, 127-139, 1987.

Dieterich, J. H., and B. Kilgore, Direct observation of frictional contacts: new insights for state-dependent properties, PaGeoph, 143, 283-302, 1994.

Dieterich, J. H., Kilgore, B., A constitutive law for the rate of earthquake production and its application to earthquake clustering, J. Geophys. Res., 99, 2601-2618, 1994.

Felzer, K. R., and E. E. Brodsky, Decay of aftershock density with distance indicates triggering by dynamic stress, Nature, 441, 735-738, 2006.

Gao, S. S., P. G. Silver, A. T. Linde, and I. S. Sacks, Annual modulation of triggered seismicity following the 1992 Landers earthquake in California, Nature, 406, 500-504, 2000.

Gomberg, J., Stress/strain changes and triggered seismicity following the Mw 7.3 Landers, California, earthquake, J.Geophys.Res., 101, 751-764, 1996.

Gomberg, J., The failure of earthquake failure models, Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth, 106, 16253-16263, 2001.

Gomberg, J., N. Beeler, and M. Blanpied, On rate-state and Coulomb failure models, Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth, 105, 7857-7871, 2000.

Gross, S., and C. Kisslinger, Estimating tectonic stress rate and state with Landers aftershocks, Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth, 102, 7603-7612, 1997.

Harris, R. A., Introduction to special section: Stress triggers, stress shadows, and implications for seismic hazard, Journal Of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth, 103, 24347-24358, 1998.

Heimpel, M., and P. Malin, Aseismic slip in earthquake nucleation and self-similarity: evidence from Parkfield, California, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 157, 249-254, 1998.

Heki, K., Seasonal Modulation of Interseismic Strain Buildup in Northeastern Japan Driven by Snow Loads, Science, 293, 2001.

Heki, K., Snow load and seasonal variation of earthquake occurrence in Japan, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 207, 159-164, 2003.

Hill, D. P., et al., Seismicity Remotely Triggered by the Magnitude 7.3 Landers, California, Earthquake, Science, 260, 1617-1623, 1993.

Hsu, Y. J., M. Simons, J. P. Avouac, J. Galetzka, K. Sieh, M. Chlieh, D. Natawidjaja, L. Prawirodirdjo, and Y. Bock, Frictional afterslip following the 2005 Nias-Simeulue earthquake, Sumatra, Science, 312, 1921-1926, 2006.

Kato, N., and T. Hirasawa, A model for possible crustal deformation prior to a coming large interplate earthquake in the Tokai District, Central Japan,, Bull. Soc. Am., 86, 1401-1417, 1999.

Kilb, D., A strong correlation between induced peak dynamic Coulomb stress change from the 1992 M7.3 Landers, California, earthquake and the hypocenter of the 1999 M7.1 Hector Mine, California, earthquake, Journal Of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth, 108, 2003.

Kilb, D., J. Gomberg, and P. Bodin, Triggering of earthquake aftershocks by dynamic stresses, Nature, 408, 570-574, 2000.

King, G. C. P., R. S. Stein, and J. Lin, Static Stress Changes And The Triggering Of Earthquakes, Bulletin Of The Seismological Society Of America, 84, 935-953, 1994.

Lockner, D. A., and N. M. Beeler, Premonitory slip and tidal triggering of earthquakes, Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth, 104, 20133-20151, 1999.

Mandl, G. (1988), Mechanics of tectonic faulting, in Developments of Structural Geology, edited by H. J. Zwart, Elsevier, Amsterdam.

Marone, C., Laboratory-derived friction laws and their application to seismic faulting, Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, 26, 643-696, 1998.

Perfettini, H., and J. P. Avouac, Postseismic relaxation driven by brittle creep: A possible mechanism to reconcile geodetic measurements and the decay rate of aftershocks, application to the Chi-Chi earthquake, Taiwan, Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth, 109, 2004.

Perfettini, H., and J. P. Avouac, Modeling afterslip and aftershocks following the 1992, Landers Earthquake, Journal Of Geophysical Research, in press.

Perfettini, H., and J. Schmittbuhl, Periodic loading on a creeping fault: Implications for tides, Geophysical Research Letters, 28, 435-438, 2001.

Perfettini, H., J. Schmittbuhl, and A. Cochard, Shear and normal load perturbations on a two-dimensional continuous fault: 1. Static triggering, Journal Of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth, 108, 2003a.

Perfettini, H., J. Schmittbuhl, and A. Cochard, Shear and normal load perturbations on a two-dimensional continuous fault: 2. Dynamic triggering, Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth, 108, art. no.-2409, 2003b.

Saar, M. O., and M. Manga, Seismicity induced by seasonal groundwater recharge at Mt. Hood, Oregon, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 214, 605-618, 2003.

Scholz, C. H., Earthquakes and friction laws., Nature, 391, 37-42, 1998.

Scholz, C. H., The Mechanics of Earthquakes and Faulting, Cambridge Univ. Press., 2nd edition, 2002.

Simpson, R. W., S. S. Schulz, L. D. Dietz, and R. O. Burford, The Response of Creeping Parts of the San-Andreas Fault to Earthquakes on Nearby Faults - 2 Examples, Pure and Applied Geophysics, 126, 665-685, 1988.

Tanaka, S., M. Ohtake, and H. Sato, Evidence for tidal triggering of earthquakes as revealed from statistical analysis of global data., J. of Geophys Res., 107, 2002a.

Tanaka, S., M. Ohtake, and H. Sato, Spatio-temporal variation of the tidal triggering effect on earthquake occurrence associated with the 1982 South Tonga earthquake of Mw 7.5, Geophysical Research Letters, 29, 2002b.

Tanaka, S., M. Ohtake, and H. Sato, Tidal triggering of earthquakes in Japan related to the regional tectonic stress, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 56, 511-515, 2004.

Toda, S., R. S. Stein, and T. Sagiya, Evidence from the AD 2000 Izu islands earthquake swarm that stressing rate governs seismicity, Nature, 419, 58-61, 2002.

Vidale, J. E., D. C. Agnew, M. J. S. Johnston, and D. H. Oppenheimer, Absence of earthquake correlation with Earth tides: An indication of high preseismic fault stress rate, Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth, 103, 24567-24572, 1998.

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